INJECTIONS IN DENTISTRY – TECHNIQUES AND ADVANCES FOR REDUCING PAIN

Pain is an integral phenomenon with bodily ailments, but is rather synonymous to dental treatment. As obnoxious as it can get, physiological as well as psychological factors, both have a role to play in dealing with pain stimulus response. More than adults, children are bound to get highly anxious even hearing about a potential dental treatment. The most feared of the treatment process is the injection part and mind it, it is not just that the fear of it is limited to kids, even adults have a strong dislike for injections. The painful experience a patient undergoes during an injection procedure is usually two fold. Firstly, when the needle perforates the mucosa damaging the tissue and secondly when injecting the fluid increases the pressure. This issues needs to be dealt with keen interest only because it could act like a roadblock for effective treatment and service.

INJECTIONS IN DENTISTRY

Its a fact that as layman, people are not much concerned about the technical finesse of the dental treatment, but would surely give you brownie points for a pain free dental procedure, injection being the common cause of unpleasant experience amongst adults and children both. In children, it proves to be a barrier in treatment as the child needs to be relaxed during the procedure of providing anaesthesia and anxiety often tends to make the child uneasy, thus hampering the treatment.

Though, research is already going on in the area, a completely pain free and non invasive type of injections are yet to hit the market. Though, numerous techniques to ease the discomfort and pain caused by injections to a good extent if not great are already there. This includes use of warmed up anaesthetic solutions, prolonged injection time and more. Here is a run down some commonly used injection delivery systems for reducing injection pain/ discomfort.

COMPUTERIZED CONTROL LOCAL ANAESTHESIA DELIVERY METHOD ( CCLAD )
WAND- Developed long back in 1997, WAND is a CCLAD device that is used for delivery of local anaesthetic solution automatically at a static pressure. It is a highly effective and comfortable injection technique even for tissues like periodontal ligament and palate, that are highly resilient by nature. The WAND consists of three different components namely foot pedal, control unit and a disposable hand piece.  The hand piece is connected to the conventional anesthetic cartridge with plastic micro tubing and is a very light weight device that looks like a Pen. The computer control unit is used for controlling the delivery of local anaesthesia, while the rate of the injection can be controlled with the help of the foot pedal. The reason behind getting such good results with Wand is basically because of maintaining the ideal flow rate.

SINGLE TOOTH ANAESTHESIA SYSTEM (STA)
Introduced in 2007, the STA helps in identifying the ideal placement for needle alongside real time monitoring of the anaesthetic solution’s exit pressure. In case of any sort of leakage, be it from the cartridge/syringe or due to improper placement of the needle or insufficient pressure, the STA has a mechanism of sending an alert.  The STA system also regulates the LA Pressure, thus administering greater volume o f LA with ease and minimal damage to tissue.

COMFORT CONTROL SYRINGE (CCS)
Made from a base unit and syringe, CCS for specific applications comes with five different basic injection rate settings. These applications include Palatal region, IO, Infiltration, PDL and Block. The LA solution gradually increases its rate to a pre-programmed value after it is initially expressed at a very low rate. The increase starts post 10 seconds.

These techniques have shown variations in results, in terms of pain reduction, depending upon certain constrains like anxiety levels, age and more, but have proved less painful in many of the cases as well.

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